Gravity help maneuvers in area

Traveling the huge ranges of space isn’t cheap for a spacecraft.

In these maneuvers, a spacecraft exchanges momentum in a close encounter with a planet to acquire or lower velocity, as required by the objective. To save expense and time or perhaps make up for absence of technological capabilities, gravity assists have been utilized in numerous interplanetary objectives to propel spacecraft towards their destinations. This includes using Jupiter’s gravity to slingshot the twin Voyager spacecraft out of the planetary system!

This post takes a look at some of the most outrageous and lesser spoke about gravity help maneuvers in past space missions. To get more acquainted with the ingenious method of gravity helps, read my explainer post with plenty of real mission examples.

Studying the Sun from above

In 1990, NASA and ESA introduced a joint mission called Ulysses to get the very first look at our Sun’s poles. For that, it would have to go out of the orbital plane of the planetary system, the aircraft in which planets go around the Sun.

Artist’s impression of the Ulysses spacecraft looking over at the Sun’s poles. Credit: NASA JPL

The only problem?

Much like how a close encounter with a world can alter a spacecraft’s speed, as when it comes to Voyagers, it can likewise modify the spacecraft’s inclination. In 1992, Ulysses passed closely over Jupiter’s north pole and the planet’s extreme gravity bent the spacecraft’s trajectory southward. This put Ulysses in a solar orbit that would take it past the Sun’s north and south poles at a disposition of 80 ° w.r.t the orbital airplane of the worlds.

Visual showing the orbital aircraft of the planets of the planetary system in orange. The Ulysses spacecraft accomplished a first-of-a-kind polar orbit around the Sun. Credit: tes teach

Keep In Mind that Ulysses didn’t literally “see” the Sun’s poles due to the fact that it didn’t have an optical cam but it had other instruments which took different clinical measurements.

Ulysses also offered us initially direct measurements of interstellar dust particles and of interstellar helium atoms in the solar system. The spacecraft also suddenly discovered itself in gaseous tails of comets every once in a while, accomplishing bonus science points.

The “Billion Euro gamble” of the comet chasing after probe

ESA’s Rosetta spacecraft– the very first to orbit a comet– thoroughly studied and kept an eye on the stylish two-lobed comet named 67 P.

Early activity of comet 67 P as imaged by the Rosetta spacecraft between January 31 to March 25,2015 Credit: ESA

Nevertheless, getting to comet 67 P in the very first location was an experience.

Rosetta’s 10- year journey through the planetary system included numerous flybys, including one around Mars. Credit: ESA

One of those gravity assists included a low-altitude Mars flyby in2007 It was a dangerous maneuver as the spacecraft passed by Mars by simply 250 km. Throughout the maneuver, Rosetta would be in Mars’ shadow, needing to count on the minimal battery supply instead of photovoltaic panels. The risk was that the batteries weren’t designed for the task The spacecraft was put in standby mode and interactions were switched off to save power.

Eventually, the Mars flyby proved successful and the spacecraft flew onward to its evasive target.

Image of Rosetta spacecraft above Mars as taken by the Philae lander video camera onboard Rosetta. Credit: ESA

Utilizing the Sun to sail

NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft was the first ever to orbit Mercury. It was not without its difficulties.

Because Mercury lies relatively close to the Sun, any spacecraft on a direct trajectory to the planet will be accelerated by the Sun. MESSENGER would therefore reach Mercury with too expensive a velocity to achieve orbit without usage of excessive fuel, which is minimal onboard. The spacecraft can not use aerobraking either given that Mercury lacks a significant environment, like Venus or Earth have.

Gravity assists were once again a rescuer.

Trajectory of MESSENGER spacecraft from launch to orbit insertion around Mercury. Credit: APL

Flying too close could crash the spacecraft into a planet and flying too expensive would suggest excess use of fuel to attain the objective. Either way, getting off target might affect the objective in important ways.

The solution engineers developed was to utilize the Sun’s radiation pressure. Much like how wind can assist a boat browse, solar radiation can assist a spacecraft maneuver.

Solar radiation at Earth is not intense sufficient to apply enough pressure and move a spacecraft in a significant way. Mercury is much more detailed. Because radiation pressure increases by the inverse square law, it has to do with 7 times more effective at Mercury than Earth. This made solar cruising a practical alternative for MESSENGER.

When going by Mercury in all the flybys, engineers sent out commands to MESSENGER to align its solar panels in a way that the radiation pressure can slow the spacecraft down. By solar cruising at the right angles, the MESSENGER team removed usage of fuel in all the Mercury flybys without compromising precision. Reserved fuel also indicated increased mission life time and more of the great science at Mercury!

Artist’s impression of NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft orbiting Mercury. Its photovoltaic panels were entitled for browsing utilizing solar radiation pressure. Credit: NASA

This was the first time a spacecraft had actually successfully used solar cruising as a propulsion-free trajectory control method for planetary flybys. For those thinking about the nerdy information, the MESSENGER team released a paper on the maneuvers.

MESSENGER image from the a Mercury flyby revealing lava-flooded craters and big areas of smooth volcanic plains on the planet. Credit: NASA

To finish up, space mission designers have actually utilized ingenious gravity assist maneuvers to see over the Sun, chase a comet and solar sail! While there are many more missions with insane trajectories, the ones highlighted here are a few of the less popular ones. Do you understand of more such intriguing orbital maneuvers? Comment below!

 Post released under the freedom-respecting  Innovative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0, minus any media file( s) credited individually.

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Rudderless after a rally, stock exchange search for next driver

LONDON/NEW YORK (Reuters) – International equity markets have mixed up about 1%this month despite the world starting to re-open after the coronavirus-driven lockdowns and U.S. and European financial data revealing twinkles of a recovery.

FILE IMAGE: The Charging Bull or Wall Street Bull is visualized in the Manhattan borough of New york city City, New York City, U.S., January 16,2019 REUTERS/Carlo Allegri

The sideways motion is in sharp contrast to the roughly 30%rally in late March and April, when financiers had the ability to brush off much more dire economic data and look towards healing backed by federal government assistance.

In some methods, not much has altered on the planet’s understanding of the coronavirus and its financial impact. Some financiers, financial experts and public health professionals have been warning for weeks that re-opening will be sluggish, vaccines will take months and the healing will be extended.

And yet, financiers appear to be bewaring just now.

In interviews, financiers stated the explanation partly depends on the failure of the marketplace’s cumulative knowledge. Stock exchange misread how quick growth may rebound. And now they need a new catalyst, such as a vaccine or substantial new stimulus, before they can choose whether to leave or hold the course. It is showing to be evasive.

” Markets have basically been variety bound for more than a month now waiting for a brand-new motorist to emerge,” said Mohamed El-Erian, primary economic consultant at Allianz. He stated that positive news on reopenings and vaccines were inadequate to make up for the string of negative data and concerns about the sharpness of the healing.

The marketplace’s problem underscores a larger predicament facing global policymakers in the fight against the coronavirus. The $15 trillion-plus pledged in worldwide stimulus inflated stock markets in April, as financiers took heart that governments will not let the global economy completely melt down. While the money kept economies afloat, it can not craft a healing.

For that, the infection must initially be brought under control.

( GRAPHIC: Dead cat bounce? – here)


Kasper Elmgreen, head of equities at Europe’s biggest asset manager, Amundi, described markets as caught in a “pull of war” in between bull and bear forces.

Elmgreen explained the bullish forces as “the extraordinary financial and financial stimulus that came much quicker and more forcefully than throughout the previous crisis.”

On the other side, he stated is consistent uncertainty over the speed and shape of financial and profits recovery. Markets are being premature in pricing a go back to normalcy even next year, he included.

” If there is light at the end of the tunnel, corporates are not seeing it,” said Elmgreen.

Certainly, determined against forward incomes, European and U.S. equities are trading back at early-March levels, when the COVID-19 effect was yet to be felt.

But with the world economy anticipated to witness its biggest contraction because the Great Anxiety, U.S. and European revenues need to decrease 40-45%in the second quarter, Refinitiv data shows.

Influential U.S. financiers David Tepper and Stanley Druckenmiller just recently explained markets as overvalued and with terrible risk-reward. Druckenmiller dismissed V-recovery hopes as “a dream”.

( GRAPHIC: Rebound in global equity evaluations – here)


To be sure, lots of investors and policymakers at first believed the financial impact of the crisis could be short, supporting the market’s optimism.

But the stock exchange has a history of missing warning signals. In the existing crisis, too, signs that it was not going to be smooth sailing got downplayed.

Paul O’Connor, head of multi-asset at Janus Henderson, stated April “wasn’t a rally that stated the world is feeling much better about growth or a reappraisal of the macro environment.”

Uneasiness was evident the whole time in bond yields that didn’t increase, gold’s 7%cost gain and investors’ rejection to release the $4.7 trillion stashed in U.S. cash market funds, he noted.

There were other loud warnings, too.

Anthony Fauci, the leading U.S. transmittable disease professional, stated as early as March 3 that it would take a minimum of 12-18 months up until a coronavirus vaccine is prepared to be deployed. On April 7, former Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke cautioned against anticipating a fast healing, stating it was likely that activity will only be rebooted gradually and might require to be slowed once again if the infection resurges.


The sobering calls are becoming a reality. Experience of countries in Asia, which had handled the virus for longer than the West, show that even after months of lockdown, consumers will not necessarily go out en masse to dine or shop, minimizing the possibility of a V-shaped healing.

A slow, U-shaped recovery, or even worse, a W-shaped double-dip is now expected by 75%of the investors surveyed by Bank of America Corp’s securities division.

” We thought central bank interventions had actually secured a few of the tail threats in the market,” said Wouter Sturkenboom, who assists develop financial investment method for $350 billion in customer properties at Northern Trust Possession Management.

Sturkenboom added threat, including equities, to his portfolio throughout the March thrashing and remained overweight through April. But recently he cut the weighting of dangerous possessions by 7%in favour of cash and cash-like possessions.

” We stress that the preliminary bounce in growth will be smaller sized and more steady than expected. The threat of a drawback surprise looks about equivalent to the possibility of a benefit surprise at this moment,” Sturkenboom said.

Reporting by Reuters Markets Group in LONDON and NEW YORK; Graphics by Ritvik Carvalho; Modified by Paritosh Bansal and Edward Tobin

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Why Norwegian Cruise Line Stock Rose 4.4%Today

The beleaguered cruise liner operator stated it could survive another 18 months of coronavirus-related sailing restrictions.

What occurred

Shares of Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings( NYSE: NCLH) climbed nearly 5%on Thursday, following the release of the cruise company’s first-quarter outcomes.

So what

With its ships stuck in port due to the coronavirus– associated cruising constraints, Norwegian generated a staggering bottom line of $1.88 billion, or $8.80 per share, in the very first quarter. Even after changing for a $1.6 billion problems charge, Norwegian’s adjusted net loss can be found in at $0.99 per share. That was far worse than the $0.28 loss Wall Street had actually expected.

Still, investors appear to be taking solace in Norwegian’s declaration that it’s “well-positioned to endure over 18 months of voyage suspensions” after raising cash through stock sales and financial obligation offerings.

” Our speedy actions to preserve money and protected extra liquidity in this unsure environment provide a strong structure to endure the functional and financial effect of COVID-19,” CFO Mark Kempa said in a press release.

A cruise ship sailing in the ocean with the sun shining behind it.

Norwegian Cruise Line Holdings states it can stay afloat even if its ships can’t sail for another 18 months. Image source: Getty Images.

Now what

Norwegian said that individuals were scheduling cruises even more in advance, hoping that the COVID-19 crisis would eventually end. The company also said it was working to make its ships safe throughout the pandemic.

” Our guests continue to show their desire for cruise vacations, and we continue to experience need for voyages even more in the future throughout our three brand names,” CEO Frank Del Rio stated As we prepare to resume cruisings, we are working all the time along with U.S. and international public health companies and federal governments to establish and carry out the next level of enhanced cruise health and wellness requirements.”

Joe Tenebruso has no position in any of the stocks mentioned. The Motley Fool has no position in any of the stocks mentioned. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.

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Joe Tenebruso has no position in any of the stocks discussed.

The Motley Fool has no position in any of the stocks mentioned. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy

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‘No much better metaphor for this presidency’– Trump tours mask-making factory with doubtful soundtrack

President Trump visited a factory making coronavirus face masks with these apparently tone-deaf lyrics blasting in the background.


MarketWatch image illustration/Getty Images.

Had Beatles icon Paul McCartney actually passed away back in 1966, as “ music’s most infamous conspiracy theory” claims, he ‘d most likely be rolling over in his grave right now.

That’s because President Trump, whom the still-living-and-performing McCartney described as “a mad captain cruising this boat we’re all on” in a 2018 song, just explored a factory in Arizona that makes coronavirus masks with these apparently tone-deaf lyrics blasting in the background:

‘ If this ever changin’ world in which we reside in makes you give in and cry, say live and let pass away.’.

McCartney composed those words for his “Live and Let Pass away” countered in1973 The Weapons N’ Roses cover was the one playing as the mask-less Trump toured the factory on Tuesday.

Other more-fitting tunes accompanied his see, such as the Trump rally favorite, Lee Greenwood’s “God Bless the U.S.A.” However it was “Live and Let Pass away” that took the program, as critics pounced:

One person called it “ the follow up” to very first lady Melania Trump’s infamous coat, which she used back in 2018 on her way to visit immigrant children at a border detention center in Texas– it was emblazoned with the text “I Truly Don’t Care. Do You?”:

Trump’s trip of the Honeywell.

factory in Phoenix follows Vice President Mike Pence’s check out to the Mayo Clinic, where he was knocked for not following the rules by not using a mask.

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The next Assassin’s Creed game is a Viking experience called Valhalla

Ubisoft is making the most of a captive audience to offer an alluring glimpse of the next game in the Assassin’s Creed series. In an expose that dovetails with leaked information from months back, we now know that the next experience in gaming’s own historical Magic School Bus series will be embeded in the Viking age, and it’ll be called Assassin’s Creed Valhalla

Enjoy the Opening Night of Assassin’s Creed Valhalla April 30 th at 8am PDT/ 5pm CEST. #AssassinsCreed

— Assassin’s Creed (@assassinscreed) April 29, 2020

The company teased the expose with an art stream. Many people would have pegged the setting as Norse based on the longships alone, but the livestream kind of gave the video game away (literally) by asking Viking-related trivia questions to the audience about five hours into the stream.

The leakage at the time looked rather dubious, so I adopted a wait-and-see attitude and now that’s what I’m in fact getting. I ‘d be interested to see if the business nails the historical details, as conventional knowledge about the Vikings in the US is rather (for absence of a much better word) Hollywood-ified.

Super excited to expose what I have actually been dealing with for the past couple of months with @Ubisoft! Make certain to tune into @assassinscreed for a really first appearance and catch the whole process live at (

— BossLogic (@Bosslogic) April 29, 2020

From what we understand of the historic Vikings, we can surmise the video game will include the cruising mechanics from previous entries (due to the fact that as soon as Ubisoft does something right, it’ll do that same thing over and over again up until we stop paying for it). The dripped info likewise indicated a big return to stealth gameplay, though offered the series has morphed into a Witcher– design action RPG, I’m unsure how much weight to give that particular detail.

BossLogic’s stream was actually quite relaxing, in that it was basically viewing somebody play with Photoshop while soothing songs from the various games’ soundtracks played over it. To each their own, I know, but it still harshed the relaxing vibe of the stream.

The trailer drops tomorrow early morning.

Update, the next early morning: Well, here she is:

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Will Last Week’s Biotech IPO Outperform In a Recession?

This cancer drug developer will have smooth sailing ahead — at least until it reports clinical trial results next year.

David Haen

Cancer drug developer Oric Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ:ORIC) successfully raised $120 million in its IPO on Friday, and the stock posted a splashy opening-day gain of 61%. Here are a few reasons why this company was so appealing to investors, even during this time of crisis.

IPO in block letters with image of one dollar bill

Image Source: Getty Images.

Intriguing scientific rationale

All too often, we hear stories of cancer patients responding to a therapy only to later learn that the drug stopped working and their cancer returned. Cancers have a track record of developing resistance to treatments using a variety of mechanisms. The name of this company is an acronym for its mission: Overcoming Resistance In Cancer.

Oric’s lead molecule, ORIC-101, potently and selectively inhibits the receptor for the hormone glucocorticoid, which is responsible for regulating cell functions like metabolism and growth. Research demonstrated that higher glucocorticoid receptor (GR) levels in cancer cells correlate with resistance to hormone therapy. 

Following safety testing in 50 healthy volunteers, Oric began two combination trials with ORIC-101 in 2019. The first combines ORIC-101 with the approved prostate cancer drug Xtandi from Pfizer (NYSE:PFE) in patients with prostate cancer. The second adds Abraxane from Bristol Myers Squibb (NYSE:BMY) to ORIC-101 in advanced-stage cancer patients. Data from both trials should be available in 2021.

Oric’s second anti-cancer program — dubbed ORIC-533 — aims to inhibit the enzyme CD73, which regulates the expression of the chemical adenosine. Overexpression of adenosine has been linked to poor prognosis for patients with triple-negative breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, and prostate cancer, among other types of cancer.

Competitive approaches primarily focus on therapeutic antibodies to block CD73. Oric developed an orally available small molecule that it claims inhibits the enzyme more potently than antibodies. However, those results came from tests performed in a laboratory setting, so it still needs to prove that ORIC-533 is effective in humans. Oric expects to start the first clinical trial with the candidate drug next year.

Strong backing

When evaluating biotech IPOs, I typically jump to the ownership table in the prospectus to see which investors have already purchased stakes. Having healthcare-dedicated investment funds involved, while no guarantee, gives me comfort. Their vetting processes generally include extensive due diligence.

Four well-known biotech investment firms, The Column Group, Topspin, Orbimed, and EcoR1 Capital, collectively owned 55.5% of Oric’s stock prior to the IPO. After the IPO, the group owned 41% of the outstanding shares.

Healthy financials

The IPO will net Oric approximately $125.5 million, assuming the underwriters fully exercise their rights to buy additional shares. These funds will support the clinical development of ORIC-101 and ORIC-533, and are expected to be sufficient to carry the company into the second half of 2022.

Practically speaking, this means Oric has roughly a year and a half to achieve milestones and raise additional capital. Most biotechs do not want to fall below one year of cash on hand to fund operations. If that happens, financing terms can get ugly.

Oric expects clinical trial data from ORIC-101 in prostate cancer in the first half of 2021 and in late-stage solid tumors in the second half of that year. Investors should see data from one or both trials before the company needs to raise additional cash. Additionally, ORIC-544 could garner some additional attention for the company as it enters clinical testing in 2021.

Only a few biotechs have successfully IPO’d since the coronavirus crisis began, and we can add Oric to that short list. With plenty of cash on hand, the company should be able to achieve its next key milestone of reporting results from one or two clinical trials next year. In the meantime, the cadre of respected healthcare investors involved in the company and the successful track records of Oric’s scientific founders suggest to biotech investors that this could be a gem waiting for its day to shine. 

David Haen owns shares of Pfizer. The Motley Fool owns shares of and recommends Bristol Myers Squibb. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.


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Blog: WHO crisis raises questions on multilateralism

Few remember the SS Tuscania today. In April 1929, when smallpox broke on this large passenger ship sailing from Mumbai to Liverpool via Marseilles, it triggered a European health and travel crisis that had some eerie resemblances to the global shutdown we have now with the coronavirus. Worried at the prospect of smallpox, France banned travel from the UK for those without vaccinations.

The British saw the European smallpox lockdown as an unnecessary exaggeration and the dispute threatened the global movement of people and goods at a time of severe economic crisis. Nothing the British health ministry said would convince the French. The crisis was only defused, as information historian Heidi J Tworek has documented, when the League of Nations Health Organisation (LNHO) – the precursor of WHO – issued a reassuring epidemiological bulletin that was seen by all to be impartial and credible.


Arundyuti Das Basu

At a time when President Donald Trump has wrongly suspended US funding for WHO, accusing it of a pro-China bias in handling the coronavirus, the SS Tuscania episode underscores just how critical the flow of credible, impartial and scientifically sound medical information is at a time of global crisis. The LNHO officials seized on the Tuscania incident, Tworek has shown, as “an opportunity: they could defuse the dispute and simultaneously showcase the League as a new and indispensable broker of information.”

Much like our present day crisis, the inter-war period is largely remembered for the retreat of globalisation. Yet countries even then agreed to honest data sharing with the LNHO, because they saw the benefits of having what one official called “a central fire-station in a municipal system of fire prevention”, overseeing “the world’s alarm system”. So, Germany continued to send out medical data even after Hitler withdrew in 1933 from the League. The need to keep data flowing also helped investments in wireless infrastructure, which later became the centrepiece of our modern telecom network.

There is no question that the world needs a neutral arbiter of medical data. This is why Trump is wrong to suspend funding to the WHO, an organisation he accuses of “severely mismanaging and covering up the spread of the coronavirus” by kowtowing to the Chinese view. His bellicosity, of course, helps deflect attention from his own delays in dealing with the virus as a national emergency. The Americans must restore WHO funding.

Second, the crisis at WHO represents a deeper malaise at its heart, one that plagues almost all multilateral organisations. Make no mistake, Covid-19 has brought to the fore what many who work in global institutions have known for years: without strong and independent leadership, many have been hostage to politicisation and manipulation, lacking legitimacy for years. Credible international organisations work only when they are seen to be neutral and impartial.

In reality, many of our global institutions are so dependent on their donors for funding that they often become pawns for their political agendas. This has contributed to what Shashi Tharoor and Samir Saran have termed the “new world disorder”, with countries slipping back into 19th century style spheres of influence. This decline of the post World War II global order has been fast forwarded by the retreat of the US and the West from globalisation, with China trying to fill the vacuum.

As international organisations become more dependent on China, their bureaucrats will be more reverential to Beijing. WHO director general Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus was praising China for its efforts till mid-February. Similarly, strategic affairs scholar C Raja Mohan has pointed out how UN secretary general Antonio Guterres was quick to jump into Indo-Pak arguments over Kashmir in 2019 and raised concerns over CAA and NRC, and was making offers to mediate between Delhi and Islamabad as late as February. “But when it comes to China’s role in the spread of the coronavirus, Guterres can’t seem to find the words.” All his appeals so far “consciously avoid getting into anything specific,” as Raja Mohan has pointed out.

Without credible independent leadership and secure funding, the legitimacy of many international organisations is broken at precisely the moment they are needed the most. The UN system, the World Bank, the IMF and many other international institutions were all created after World War II as tools to reconstruct the post-war world. That system is now facing its greatest crisis ever with war-style falls in GDP globally, and what the IMF calls the “biggest economic downturn since the Great Depression” of 1929.

IMF’s latest World Economic Outlook notes that for the “first time since the Great Depression, both advanced economies and emerging market and developing economies are in recession.” This is precisely the time we need our multilateral institutions to work optimally. Without them, the task of recovery will be more difficult. IMF’s Gita Gopinath has rightly argued that “multilateral cooperation is vital to the health of the global recovery” and “collaborative effort is needed to ensure that the world does not de-globalise, so the recovery is not damaged by further losses to productivity.”

Multilateralism is crucial to fighting this crisis and maintaining the global commons is vital to get through this. Yet, on the other side of this crisis lies a drastic restructuring of the world order with Washington retreating into isolationalism and China’s credibility dented. Covid-19 is accelerating many existing fissures in the international system. How we go about addressing them will be fundamental to our political and economic futures.

DISCLAIMER : Views expressed above are the author’s own.

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